Wednesday, November 25, 2009

geopolitika da saerTaSoriso urTierTobebi

oTar qoCoraZe
geopolitika da saerTaSoriso urTierTobebi
(kategoria “sivre”-s politikuri da samarTlebrivi aspeqtebis
SedarebiTi analizi)


geopolitika Seiswavlis saerTaSoriso urTierTobebis, msoflio vaWrobis, kacobriobis globaluri ontologiis dinamikis fizikur-geografiul, politikur, ekonomikur-geografiul, rasobriv-anTropologiur, kulturul-konfesionalur, semantikur da civilizaciur ganpirobebulobas.
geoplitikis ZiriTad kategorias warmoadgens sivrceze kontroli. geopolitika swavlobs saxelmwifos da saxelmwifoTa kavSirebis (agreTve sxva politikuri institutebis) mier sivrceze kontrolis safuZvlebs, SesaZleblobebs, meqanizmebs da formebs.
saxelmwifos geopolitikuri mdebareoba aris saxelmwifos adgilmdebareoba Zalis ZiriTad centrebTan mimarTebaSi. es mdebareoba SeiZleba iyos centraluri (Zalis centri), periferiuli, buferuli (Zalis centrebs Soris Sualeduri mdebareoba).


alfred Taier meheni (ing., Alfred Thayer Mahan)(1840-1914 ww.)
amerikeli samxedro Teoretikosi da istorikosi, kontr-admirali. geopolitikis erT-erTi damaarsebeli.

teritoria, romelsac akontrolebs an cdilobs gaakontrolos saxelmwifom, xasiaTdeba upirveles yovlisa centrsa da teritorias Soris kavSirebis ganviTarebis doniT. am sakiTxTan mimarTebaSi sainteresoa amerikuli geopolitikis fuZemdeblis admiral Aalfred mehenis mosazreba.
alfred mehens miaCnda, rom saxelmwifos geopolitikuri statusisa da poziciis analizi unda ganxorcieldes Semdegi kriteriumebis saSualebiT:
_ saxelmwifos geografiuli mdebareoba, misi zRvebze gasasvleli da sxva saxelmwifoebTan sazRvao komunikaciebis SesaZlebloba. saxmeleTo sazRvrebis ganfeniloba, unari gaakontrolos strategiulad mniSvnelovani regioni. unari sakuTari flotiT daemuqros metoqis teritoriebs. [aq mehenisaTvis mTavari aris sazRvao sanapiro xazebi da saxmeleTo sazRvrebis arqona, romelic moiTxovs qveynis kontinentalur gafarToebas omebis meSveobiT, rac Tavis mxriv iwvevs qveynis simdidris maqsimalur gamofitvas. qveynis geografiulma mdebareobam SeiZleba moiTxovos sazRvao Zalebis an Sejgufeba, an kidev gafantva. misi azriT, “qveynis geografiuli mdebareoba SeiZleba ara marto xels uwyobdes misi Zalebis Tavmoyras, aramed aqvs sxva strategiuli upiratesobac _ centraluri pozicia da kargi baza SesaZlo mtrebis winaaRmdeg saomari operaciebis sawarmoeblad”.]
_ saxelmwifos “fizikuri konfiguracia”, anu sazRvao sanapiroebis moxazuloba da maTze ganlagebuli portebis raodenoba. amaze aris damokidebuli vaWrobis ayvaveba da strategiuli daculoba. [mehens marTebulad miaCnia, rom qveynis sanapiroebis xazi _ aris misi erT-erTi sazRvari, da rac ufro advilia sazRvao sazRvrebis meSveobiT sxva qveynebSi SeRweva, miT ufro Zlieria xalxis swrafva masTan urTierTobisaTvis. qveyanaSi, romelsac gaaCnia didi ganfenilobis sanapiro zoli, magram saerTod ara aqvs navsadgurebi, ver ganviTardeba verc sazRvao naosnoba, verc sazRvao vaWroba da verc samxedro floti. samxedro uSualobiT igi gansakuTrebiT xazs usvams erT garemoebas: Tu zRva qveyanas hyofs or an met nawilad, am qveynis floba ara Tu sasurveli, aramed arsebiTad aucilebelic aris. aSS-s adgilmdebareobis analizisas igi aRniSnavs, rom mis teritoriaze cotaa iseTi punqtebi, romlebic sustebi arian TavianTi izolirebuli mdgomareobis gamo, Statebis sazRvrebis yvela mniSvnelovani nawili advili misadgomia Sida olqebidan _ iafad wyliT, swrafad rkinigziT. xolo misi usustesi sazRvari, wynari okeane, Zalian Sors aris SesaZlo mtrebs Soris yvelaze saxifaTosagan.
_ teritoriis ganfeniloba. igi sanapiro xazis sigrZis toli aris. meheni xazgasmiT aRniSnavs, rom sazRvao Zlevamosilebis ganviTarebisaTvis mniSvneloba aqvs ara qveynis mier dakavebuli milebis raodenobas, aramed misi sanapiro xazebis sigrZesa da navsadgurebis xasiaTs;
_ mosaxleobis statistikuri raodenoba, rac mniSvnelovania saxelmwifos mier xomaldebis agebisa da maTi momsaxurebis SesaZleblobis SefasebisaTvis. aq gansakuTrebul rols TamaSobs mosaxleobis is nawili, romelic icnobs zRvas. es xelsayrel pirobebs qmnis maT dasasaqmeblad, xomaldebze samsaxuri, agreTve flotis materialuri nawilis organizaciisaTvis. aqedan gamomdinare meheni did mniSvnelobas aniWebs im rezervebis formirebas, romelTac SeeZlebaT flotSi samsaxuri.
_ erovnuli xasiaTi. xalxis vaWrobis unarianoba, vinaidan sazRvao Zlevamosileba dafuZnebuli aris mSvidobian da farTo masStabian vaWrobaze. sainteresosa qveynis mosaxleobis erovnuli xasiaTis meheniseuli analizi: “Tu sazRvao Zlevamosileba namdvilad eyrdnoba msoflio da farTo vaWrobas, maSin komerciuli saqmianobisadmi swrafva unda iyos im eris ganmasxvavebeli niSani, romlebic ama Tu im dros didebi iyvnen zRvaze”. igi amtkicebs, rom portugalielebi da espanelebisaTvis momxveWelobis wyurvili gadaiqca sastik siZunweSi. Tumca simdidrisaken swrafvaSi maT gaaCndaT sxva Tvisebebic: simamace, gergilianoba, zomiereba, tanjva-wvalebis moTmenis unari, ganviTarebuli erovnuli grZnoba. erovnuli xasiaTi Tavis mxriv gavlenas axdens sazRvao Zlevamosilebis ganviTarebaze, eris unariT daaarsos ayvavebuli koloniebi. mehens miaCnia, rom kolonisti aigivebs sakuTar interesebs axali sacxovreblis interesebTan da Tavidanve zrunavs Tavisi axali qveynis resursebis ganviTarebaze.
_ mmarTvelobis politikuri xasiaTi. vinaidan masze aris damokidebuli saukeTeso bunebrivi da adamianuri resursebis miznobrivi peretrubacia sazRvao Zlevamosilebis Sesaqmnelad. mehens miaCnia, rom sazRvao Zlevamosilebis ganviTareba damokidebulia mTavrobis sibrZnis, energiisa da Jinisagan. man unda gaiTvaliswinos sakuTari xalxis bunebrivi midrekililebebi, xeli Seuwyos mis yovelmxriv zrdasa da ganviTarebas. mTavroba miT ufro sandoa, rac ufro didia mis moRvaweobaSi xalxis neba. despoturi xelisufleba dasaxul mizanTan SeiZleba ufro male mivides da ufro naklebad gadaixaros dasaxuli gegmisagan, vidre es sesaZlebelia Tavisufali xalxis mTavrobisagan. brZeni mTavroba, romelic eyrdnoba sazRvao Zlevamosilebas, advilad daipyrobs erT an ramodenime qveyanas.

fridrix ratceli (1844-1904 ww.) (ger., Friedrich Ratzel) germaneli mecnieri, geografi, sociologi, paleontologi da zoologi.

fridrix ratceli mkvlevarTagan pirveli mivida im daskvnamde, rom sivrce aris yvelaze mniSvnelovani politikur-geografiuli faqtori. mas miaCnda, rom sivrce aris ara ubralod teritoria, romelic ukavia saxelmwifos da warmoadgens misi Zalis erT-erT atributs. sivrce _ Tavad aris politikuri Zala. amgvarad ratcelisaTvis sivrce ufro mets niSnavs, vidre fizikur-geografiuli cneba. igi warmoadgen im bunebriv farglebs, romlebSic mimdinareobs xalxebis eqspansia. yovel saxelmwifosa da xalxs gaaCnia Tavisi `sivrculi koncefcia”, anu idea sakuTari teritoriuli samflobeloebis SesaZlo zRvarze. saxelmwifos dacema aris dasustebuli sivrculi koncefciisa da dasustebuli sivrculi grZnobis Sedegi. sivrce ganapirobebs xalxis ara marto fizikur evolucias, aramed agreTve mis mentalur damokidebulebas garesamyarosTan. adamianis Sexeduleba samyaroze damokidebulia sivrceze, romelSic is cxovrobs.
CrdiloeT amerikaSi mogzaurobis Sedegad fridrix ratcelma dawera ori wigni: 1874 wels “CrdiloeT amerikis qalaqebisa civilizaciebis rukebi” da 1878-1880 w-s “CrdiloeT amerikis SeerTebuli Statebi”. ratceli aRniSnavs, rom amerikelebs umaRles donemde aqvT ganviTarebuli “sivrcis SegrZneba” im ubralo mizezis gamo, rom isini aRmoCndnen “carieli” sivrcis aTvisebis problemis winaSe da Sesabamisad amerikelebi Segnebulad anxorcieleben imas, riskenac evropelebi midian intuiciurad da etapobrivad.
fridrix ratcelisTvis sivrce aris LebensRaum – sasicocxlo sivrce, geobiogaremo, romelic sasicocxlo energias aZlevs xalxs. sivrce ganixileba rogorc am sivrceSi mcxovrebi eTnosis sasicocxlo uwyveti sxeuli. eTnosisa da sivrcis Tanafardobaze igi werda, rom “saxelmwifos maxasiaTeblebi” viTardebian xalxisa da niadagis maxasiaTeblebidan. yvelaze mniSvnelovan maxasiaTeblebs warmoadgenen: zomebi, adgilmdebareoba da sazRvrebi. Semdeg modian niadagis tipebi mcenareul safarTan erTad, irigacia da Tanafardoba miwis zedapiris danarCen konglomeratebTan, pirvel rigSi mimdebare sazRvrebTan da dausaxlebel miwebTan. magram rodesac saubroben “Cvens qveyanaze” amas emateba yovelive is, rac adamianma Seqmna da miwasTan dakavSirebuli yvela mogoneba. amgvarad geografiuli cneba gadaiqceva qveynis macxovreblebisa da maTi istoriis sulier da emocionalur kavSirad.
fridrix ratcelma pirvelma Camoayaliba mniSvnelovani geopolitikuri koncefcia Weltmacht _ `msoflio saxelmwifos” koncefcia. man SeniSna, rom did saxelmwifoebs Tavis ganviTarebaSi gaaCnia maqsimaluri geografiuli eqspansiis tendencia, romelic droTa ganmavlobaSi iZens msoflio xasiaTs. misi azriT saxelmwifos gafarToeba da SekumSva warmoadgens bunebriv process, romelic dakavSirebulia sasicocxlo ciklTan. ratcelma Camoayaliba saxelmwifos sivrculi zrdis Svidi kanoni, es aris saxelmwifos sivrculi zrdis principebis erToblioba:
1. saxelmwifos sivrce izrdeba misi kulturis zrdasTan erTad;
saxelmwifos zrda gulisxmobs ideebs, vaWrobis Semdgom ganviTarebas, anu sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis yvela sferoSi mzard aqtuirobas;
saxelmwifos zrda mimdinareobs mcire saxelmwifoebis STanTqmis (SemoerTebis) xarjze;
sazRvari _ es aris saxelmwifos periferiuli organo, igi aris misi zrdis, Zalis an sisustisa da mis organizmSi cvlilebebis naSTi;
saxelmwifo miiswrafvis Seisrutos fizikuri garemocvis yvelaze faseuli elementebi: sanapiro zolebi, mdinareTa auzebi, resursebiT mdidari raionebi;
ganuviTarebel saxelmwifoebs teritoriuli zrdis sawyisi impulsi mosdiT garedan, ufro ganviTarebuli (maRali) civilizaciebidan;
SemoerTebisa da STanTqmis tendencia _ warmoadgens saxelmwifos damaxasiaTebel niSans, romelic iZens sul ufro da ufro mzard xasiaTs;
fridrix ratcels miaCnda, rom saxelmwifos zrda warmoadgens sayovelTao, unikalur tendencias. adamianTa kontaqtebis ganviTareba, gacvla, vaWroba _ es aris axal kolonizirebad teritoriebze saxelmwifos politikuri kontrolis damyarebis preludia. vaWroba da omi _ es aris ori forma, ori stadia saxelmwifos teritoriuli zrdis procesSi.
ratcelisTvis zRva da “msoflio saxelmwifo” organuladaa erTmaneTTan dakavSirebuli. man pirvelma gamoTqva azri civilizaciis ganviTarebaSi zRvis mniSvnelobis zrdis Sesaxeb. 1900 wels gamoqveynebul naSromSi “zRva xalxTa Zlierebis saTave” igi aRniSnavda, rom didma saxelmwifom maqsimalurad unda ganaviTaros Tavisi sazRvao-samxedro Zalebi, vinaidan amas iTxovs planetaruli masStabis srulfasovani eqspansia. misi azriT imas, rasac zogierTi saxelmwifo (inglisi, holandia, espaneTi da sxv.) spontanurad axorcielebda, saxmeleTo saxelmwifoebma (germaniam...) Segnebulad unda gaakeTon: Weltmacht _ “msoflio saxelmwifos” statusTan miaxloebisaTvis aucilebel pirobas warmoadgens flotis ganviTareba.
fridrix ratcelis naSromebSi safuZveli Caeyara “okeanuri ciklis” popularul geopolitikur ideas. aq gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba eniWeba xmelTaSua zRvis auzsa da atlantikas, rogorc msoflios umniSvnelovanes strategiul raionebs. gansakuTrebul interess iwvevs wynari okeanis auzis mniSvnelobis analizi. ratceli mas uwodebs “momavlis okeanes”, romelic xelsayreli strategiuli mdgomareobis, unikaluri resursebisa da uzarmazari moculobis gamo male gaxdeba msoflios bevri wamyvani saxelmwifos aqtiuri moRvaweobisa da interesebis Sejaxebis arena. saxelmwifo, romelic moipovebs pirvelobas wynari okeanis auzSi, gaxdeba msoflio dominanti.
ratceli darwmunebuli iyo, rom male wynari okeanis zolSi Zalismieri meTodebiT daiwyeba urTierTobis garkveva msoflios xuT wamyvan saxelmwifos Soris. es saxelmwifoebia: didi britaneTi, aSS, ruseTi, CineTi, iaponia. ratceli da misi mowafeebi mividnen im daskvnamde, rom gadamwyveti konfliqti sazRvao da kontinentalur saxelmwifoebs Soris moxdeba swored wynari okeanis zonaSi da katastrofuli finaliT daamTavreben kacobriobis istoriis ciklur evolucias. amavdroulad am konfliqtSi kontinentalur saxelmwifoebs, maTi mdidari resursebiT, gaaCniaT sruliad garkveuli upiratesoba sazRvao saxelmwifoebTan SedarebiT, vinaidan isini ar floben sakmaris sivrces TavianTi geopolitikuri bazis saxiT.
ratcelis SemoqmedebiTi memkvidreobidan SeiZleba gamovyoT sami ZiriTadi idea:
_ CineTi da CineTis mosaxleobis migracia. ratcelis azriT `sicocxlisunariani xalxis umniSvnelovanes maxasiaTebels warmoadgens mobiluroba, igi warmoadgens nebismieri eris maxasiaTebels da axasiaTebs TviT im erebsac, romlebic erTi SexedviT imyofebian uZraobaSi”. Cinuri emigracia warmoadgens mSvidobiani kolonizaciis magaliTs, mokrZalebuls Tavisi masStabebiT, magram mainc mniSvnelovans, Tuki gaviTvaliswinebT, rom igi xorcieldeba glexebisa da vaWrebis mier. `istoriam icis uamravi magaliTi imisa, Tu rogor kargavda erTi saxelmwifo im teritoriebs romlebic waarTva meore saxelmwifos, imitom rom dampyrobeli xalxi ar acnobierebda am teritoriebis Semomtkicebis mniSvnelobas sameurneo aTvisebis gziT. arsebobs agreTve uamravi sapirispiro magaliTi rodesac mcirericxovani adamianebis civilizatoruli saqmianoba win uZRvis am teritoriaze politikuri batonobis damyarebas”.
_ amerikis SeerTebuli Statebi. StatebSi mogzaurobisas ratceli gaocebuli iyo amerikis dasavleTis axali miwebis aTvisebis gaqanebiT, energiuli da yoCaRi emigrantebis erTimeores miyolebuli talRiT. ratcelisaTvis aSS iyo momavlis saxelmwifos xateba, romelic viTardeboda vrcel teritoriebze. amas xels uwyobda qveynis moculoba da bunebrivi simdidris mravalferovneba. ratcelis azriT yvelaze xelsayreli perspeqtivebi iSleboda saxelmwifo-kontinentebis winaSe, vinaidan swored isini iyvnen yvelaze momzadebuli planetaruli maStabis sistemis damyarebisTvis.
_ didi britaneTi. ratcelis gansakuTrebuli yuradReba miipyro arc Tu ise didi inglisis Tavbrusdamxvevma kolonialurma, samrewvelo da savaWro eqspansiam. misi azriT `xelsayreli sagareo stimulebis gamoyeneba da samxedro usafrTxoeba _ aris zrdisa da srulyofis umniSvnelovanesi garantia. es exeba nebismier organizmebs, calkeul individumebsa da xalxebs, romlebmac miaRwies TavianT simwifes im SemTxvevebSi, rodesac siRiave erwymis sakuTrebis arsebobas”. swored amiT aixsneba didi britaneTis Zlevamosileba: mtrebis Tavdasxmisagan zRvebiT daculi, evropis uSualo siaxloves ganlagebuli inglisi Tavis gavlenas avrcelebs yvela okeaneze da itacebs vrcel teritoriebs sxva kontinentebze (CrdiloeT amerika, indoeTi avstralia, afrikis samxreTi) da imavdroulad ar kargavs Tavis TviTmyofadobas. (4)

iuxan rudolf Celeni (1864_1922 ww.) (Sved., Johan Rudolf Kjellén) iuristi da saxelmwifoTmcodne. istoriisa da politikuri mecnierebis profesori.

rudolf Celens miaCnda, rom individualuri saxelmwifos yovelmxriv Seswavlis safuZvelze SeiZleba moxdes zogierTi yvelaze zogadi kanonebisa da principebis deducireba, romlebic Seesatyviseba yvela saxelmwifos da yvela dros. erT-erTi maTgans warmoadgens saxelmwifos siZliere. saxelmwifoebi aRzevdebian imitom, rom arian Zlierebi. Celens miaCnda, rom Zala warmoadgens ufro mniSvnelovan faqtors saxelmwifos arsebobis SesanarCuneblad, vidre kanoni, vinaidan TviT kanonis dacva SesaZlebelia mxolid ZaliT. swored ZalaSi poulobs Celeni Tavis mTavar Teziss, saxelmwifo aris cocxali organizmi, mtkicebulebas. kanons zneobriv-racionaluri elementi Seaqvs saxelmwifoSi, Zala ki aZlevs mas bunebriv organul impulss. Celeni amtkicebda rom saxelmwifo aris mizani Tavis TavSi da ara organizacia, romelic emsaxureba sakuTari moqalaqeebis keTildReobis gaumjobesebis miznebs.
1910 wels gamoqveynebul wignSi “didi saxelmwifoebi” rudolf Celeni cdilibda daemtkicebina, rom mcire qveynebi Tavisi geografiuli mdebareobidan gamomdinare “ganwirulni” arian damorCilebulni iyvnen “didi saxelmwifoebis” mier, romlebic isev da isev TavianTi “geografiuli bedisweridan” gamomdinare valdebulni arian gaaerTianon isini did geografiul da sameurno “kompleqsebad”. Celeni aRniSnavda, rom msgavsi saxis “kompleqsebi-kerZod aSS, britaneTis imperia, ruseTis imperia-Camoyalibdnen jer kidev HXVIII-XIX saukuneebSi, maSin rodesac didi evropuli “kompleqsis” anu erTobis Camoyalibeba warmoadgens germaniis amocanas.
rudolf Celenma ganaviTara ratcelis geopolitikuri principebi konkretuli istoriul situaciasTan mimarTebaSi. man logikur dasrulebamde miiyvana ratcelis “kontinentaluri saxelmwifos” idea germaniasTan mimarTebaSi da aCvena, rom evropis konteqstSi germania warmoadgens im sivrces, romelsac gaaCnia RerZuli dinamizmi da romlis mowodebas warmoadgens evropis danarCeni saxelmwiboebis struqturireba Tavis garSemo. germanofilma rudolf Celenma ganacnobiera ra skandinaviuli qveynebis sisustes potencialuri sagareo safrTxis winaSe, wamoayena germanul-noridiuli kavSiris Seqmnis winadadeba germaniis imperiis meTaurobiT.
sainteresoa pirveli msoflio omis Celeniseuli interpretacia. misi azriT es iyo bunebrivi geopolitikuri konfliqti aRmocenebuli germaniisa da misi mokavSire RerZis saxelmwifoebis dinamiur eqspansiasa da antantis periferiul evropul da araevropul saxelmwifoebs Soris. gansxvavebam geopolitikuri zrdis dinamikaSi ganapiroba ZalTa ZiriTadi ganlageba (daRmavali inglisisa da safrangeTisaTvis, aRmavali germaniisaTvis). misi azriT germaniis geopolitikuri gaigiveba evropasTan gardauvalia, miuxedavad pirveli msoflio omSi germaniis droebiTi damarcxebisa.
pirveli msoflio omis damTavrebisa da versalis xelSekrulebis dadebis Semdeg rudolf Celenma Camoayaliba Tezisi im sam geografiul faqtorze, romlebic mTavar rols TamaSoben globalur geopolitikaSi. am faqtorebidan is miiCnevs gafarToebas, teritoriul monoliTurobasa da gadaadgilebis Tavisuflebas. igi amtkicebda, rom didi britaneTi gamoirCeva Tavisufali gadaadgilebis maRali xarisxiT, mZlavri sazRvao flotisa da sazRvao komunikaciebze batonobis wyalobiT igi aseve flobs gafarToebis faqtorsac, aq laparakia uzarmazar koloniur samflobeloebze (britaneTis imperia ganlagebili iyo dedamiwis zedapiris 24%-ze), magram did britaneTs ar gaaCnia monoliTuroba, vinaidan misi koloniebi mimofantuli iyo mTel samyaroSi. swored amaSi mdgomareobda inglisis politikis susti mxare. ruseTs gaaCnia didi teritoria, monoliTuroba, magram ar aqvs gadaadgilebis Tavisufleba, vinaidan ruseTis gasvla Tbili zRvebisken SezRudulia.
rudolf Celenma ganamtkica ratcelis geopolitikuri maqsima; germaniis interesebi upirispirdebian dasavleTevropuli saxelmwifoebis (gansakuTrebiT safrangeTisa da inglisis) interesebs. magram germania aris “Wabuki” saxelmwifo, germanelebi ki “Wabuki eri” (idea “Wabuki erebis” Sesaxeb, romlebsac miakuTvnebdnen germanelebsa da rusebs, ekuTnoda T. dostoevskis. igi iyenebda termins “юный народ” da Cven mizanSewonilad miviCnieT “юный” gveTargmna rogorc “Wabuki”, misi mzardi mizandasaxuli agresiulobis gamo, da ara rogorc “norCi”, “axalgazrda”). Celenis azriT “Wabuki” germania unda daeuflos Suaevropul sivrces da Seqmnas planetaruli maStabis kotinentaluri saxelmwifo, winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi germania daiRupeba iseT geopolitikur struqturebTan brZolaSi, rogoricaa ruseTi, inglisi Tavis koloniebiT, safrangeTi da aSS. amisTvis centraluri evropis xalxebi unda gaerTiandnen xarisxobrivad axali politikur-ekonomikur sivrceSi, romlis RerZic iqnebian germanelebi, vinaidan sakuTari geografiuli mdebareoba aiZulebs germanias daicvas mTeli evropis mTavari interesebi.
1916 wels gamoqveynebul Tavis ZiriTad naSromSi “saxelmwifo, rogorc sicocxlis forma”, rudolf Celenma ganaaliza Zalis avtonomia da misi geografiuli safuZvlebi. misi azriT saxelmwifo, rogorc sicocxlis formaTa erToblioba Sedgeba xuTi sasicocxlo formisgan:
· fizikur-geografiuli (sivrceSi ganfenili organizmi _ geopolitika);
· sameurneo (Tavisi specifikuli aqtiurobiT _ ekopolitika);
· rogorc xalxi Tavisi erovnuli da eTnikuri maxasiaTeblebiT _ demopolitika;
· gansxvavebuli klasebisa da profesiebis socialuri erToba _ sociopolitika;
· saxelmwifo marTvis formiT misi konstituciuri da administraciuli struqturebiT _kratopolitika.
Celenis azriT erTi da igive Zalis es xuTive elementi, xuTi TiTis msgavsad Sromoben mSvidobian dros da ibrZvian omis dros.
sivrces, romelsac akontrolebs saxelmwifo an saxelmwifoTa kavSiri ewodeba geopolitikuri veli. gTavazobT msgavsi velebis Semdeg klasifikacias:
_ endemuri veli (berZnuli _ endemos-adgilobrivi) _ sivrce, romelsac saxelmwifo akontrolebs didi xnis ganmavlobaSi. am teritoriis kuTvnileba mocemuli erovnuli erTobis mier aRiarebulia mezoblebis mier.
_ sasazRvro veli _ teritoria, romelic imyofeba mocemuli saxelmwifos kontrolis qveS, magram ar aris saTanadod aTvisebuli demografiulad, ekonomikurad da politikurad. xSir SemTxvevaSi amdagvar vels warmoadgens erovnuli umciresobebiT dasaxlebuli sivrce. mosazRvre saxelmwifoebi saeWvod miiCneven am teritoriebis kuTvnilebis sakiTxs, magram ar ganixilaven maT, rogorc sakuTar teritoriebs.
_ jvaredini veli _ sivrce, romelzec pretenzias acxadebs ramodenime mosazRvre saxelmwifo.
_ totaluri veli _ erovnuli erTobis kontrolis qveS myofi uwyveti sivrce.
_ geopolitikuri sayrdeni wertili _ teritoria, romelic imyofeba totaluri velis miRma, romelsac akontrolebs romelime saxelmwifo, magram am teritoriisaken mimaval komunikaciebs akontrolebs sxva saxelmwifo an saxelmwifoebi.
_ metaveli _ sivrce, romelsac erTdroulad ramodenime saxelmwifo iTvisebs. xSir SemTxvevaSi msgavsi aTviseba mimdinareobs garedan geopolitikuri zewolis pirobebSi. (5, 24-25)
geopolitikur sivrceze kontrolis mravalferovani formebi cnobilia odiTganve. esenia: samxedro, politikuri, ekonomikuri, demografiuli, sakomunikacio, religiuri da sxva. Tanamedrove pirobebSi did rols TamaSoben sainformacio-ideologiuri, teqnologiuri da kulturul-civilizaciuri kontrolis formebi. kontrolis es formebi xSir SemTxvevaSi gamoiyeneba sxavasxagvari kombinaciuri Sexamebis saxiT, rameTu geopolitikuri midgoma moiTxovs saxelmwifoTaSorisi urTierTmoqmedebis yvela faqtoris gaTvaliswinebas. es faqtorebia: geografiuli, ekonomikuri, samxedro, demografiuli, politikuri, kulturul-religiuri, eTnikuri, informaciuli.
mniSvnelovan geopolitikur kategoriaTa ricxvs ganekuTvneba agreTve politikuri sivrcis cneba, romelic Semofarglulia sazRvrebiT. saxelmwifos erT-erT ZiriTad niSans warmoadgens politikuri sivrce. geopolitikaSi mniSvnelovan rols TamaSoben sivrculi urTierTobebi saxelmwifoebs Soris. am rolSi gamodian sazRvrebi. sazRvrebis geopolitikuri problema warmoiSveba yovelTvis, rogorc ki iwyeba brZola politikur sivrceze kontrolis, mierTebisa da aTvisebisaTvis. sazRvrebi, saxelmwifoebs Soris, warmoadgenen maTi interesebis politikur-strategiul gammijnav xazs. sasazRvro sivrce _ anu qveynis is nawili, romelic uSualod emijneba saxelmwifo sazRvars da Tavisi bunebrivi da social-ekonomikuri pirobebidan gamomdinare, samxedro TvalsazrisiT taqtikur-geografiul Taviseburebebs qmnis.
erovnuli saxelmwifoebis iurisdiqciis miRma mdebare teritoriebs, saerTaSoriso samarTlis normebis Tanaxmad, ewodeba saerTaSoriso teritoria da es aris sivrce, romelzec ar vrceldeba romelime saxelmwifos suvereniteti. igi ganisazRvreba rogorc res communis, anu teritoria, romelic ekuTvnis yvelas.
saerTaSoriso teritoriebs, tardiciulad, miekuTvneba: Ria zRva; sahaero sivrce Ria zRvis Tavze; erovnuli iurisdiqciis (kontinentaluri Selfis) miRma mdebare zRvebisa da okeaneebis fskeri; antarqtida kosmosuri sivrce, maT Soris mTvare da sxva ciuri sxeulebi.
gaeros konvenciam sazRvao samarTlis Sesaxeb msoflio okeane da zRvebi gansxvavebuli samarTlebrivi reJimis mqone 9 zonad dahyo: Sida wylebi; teritoriuli zRva; mimdebare zona; gansakuTrebuli ekonomikuri zona; gansakuTrebuli TevzWeris zona; arqipelaguri wylebi; kontintnturi Selfi; Ria zRva; Ria zRvis fskeri.
saerTaSoriso samarTlis normebis Sesabamisad (United Nations Convention on Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), termini “Ria zRva” aRniSnavs zRvis yvela im nawils, romlebic ar Sedian romelime saxelmwifos Sida wylebSi an teritoriul zRvaSi (UNCLOS I - 1958 wlis 29 aprilis konvenciis st.1) Ria zRva gaxsnilia yvela erisaTvis da arc erT saxelmwifos ara aqvs ufleba misi romelime nawili dauqvemdebaros Tavis iurisdiqcias. Ria zRvis Tavisufleba, romelic krZalavs romelime eris mier mis dasakuTrebas, garantirebulia Semdegi pirobebiT: naosnobis Tavisufleba; Tevzis rewvis Tavisufleba; wyalqveSa kabelebisa da milsadenebis gayvanis Tavisufleba; Ria zRvis Tavze frenis Tavisuleba (UNCLOS I - 1958 wlis 29 aprilis konvenciis st. 2)
1982 wels miRebulma gaeros konvenciam (UNCLOS III), sazRvao samarTlis Sesaxeb, gaafarTova Ria zRvis Tavisuflebis pirobebi. im droidan moyolebuli, Ria zRvis Tavisufleba vrceldeba ara marto zRvispira saxelmwifoebze, aramed im saxelmwifoebzec, romlebsac ara aqvT zRvaze gasasvleli da maT aqvT: naosnobis Tavisufleba; frenis Tavisufleba; wyalqveSa kabelebisa da milsadenebis gayvanis Tavisufleba (1982 wlis konvenciis VI nawilis dacviT); xelovnuri kunZulebisa da sxva saxis danadgarebis agebis Tavisufleba, saerTaSoriso samarTlis normebiT daSvebuli, (1982 wlis konvenciis VI nawilis dacviT); Tevzis rewvis Tavisufleba (1982 wlis konvenciis II ganyofilebaSi mocemuli pirobebis dacviT); samecniero kvlevevbis warmoebis Tavisufleba, (1982 wlis konvenciis VI da XIII nawilebis dacviT);
sahaero sivrcis zeda zRvars warmoadgens dedamiwis sivrcis sazRvari massa da kosmoss Soris. dedamiwis sivrcis sazRvaSi gulisxmoben burTulismagvar zedapirs, romelic imeorebs dedamiwis konfiguracias da ganlagebulia misi zedapiridan (zRvis done) raRac namZilze (110 km.) (3, 37)
erovnuli iurisdiqciis gareT mdebare zRvebisa da okeaneebis fskeri gaeros 1982 wlis konvenciis Tanaxmad gamocxadebulia kacobriobis saerTo memkvidreobad (1982 wlis konvenciis preambulis punqti #6). kontinentaluri Selfis miRma mdebare zRvebisa da okeaneebis fskerma miiRo zRvis fskeris saerTaSoriso raionis saxeli da igi ar eqvemdebareba erovnul miTvisebas, anu rogorc aris dafiqsirebuli konvenciis 137 statiaSi _ arc erT saxelmwifos ara aqvs ufleba pretenzia ganacxados suverenitetze an suverenul uflebebze an ganaxorcielos isini am raionis romelime nawilze an resursebze da rom arcerT saxelmwifos, fizikur an iuridiul pirs ar SeuZlia miiTvisos maTi romelime nawili.
kontinentaluri Selfi

saerTaSoriso teritoriis am saxeobis statuss axasiaTebs ramodenime mniSvnelovani maxasiaTebeli: erovnuli iurisdiqciis gamoricxva; masze saqmianoba mTeli kacobriobis sakeTildReod (statia #140); mxolod mSvidobiani miznebisaTvis gamoyeneba (statia #141); teritoriis (raionis) resursebze, ekuTvnis mTel kacobriobas, yvela uflebis ganxorcieleba ekuTvnis sazRvao fskeris specialur saerTaSoriso organos (statia #153-s nawili I); resursebis paraleluri damuSaveba (statia #153-s nawili II, punqti “b”); misi ar cnoba msoflios mravali wamyvali saxelmwifos mier. magaliTad, 1984 wels aSS, didma britaneTma, gfr da kidev xuTma saxelmwifom dades separatistuli xelSekruleba msoflio okeanis perspeqtiul raionebSi mineraluri resursebis damuSavebis Sesaxeb da Sesabamisad, ignorireba gaukeTes 1982 wlis konvenciis normebs.
antarqtikas ukavia daaxloebiT 52,5 milioni kv.km. da moicavs dausaxlebel materiks antarqtidas (13 975 aTas kv.km., maT Soris 1 582 aTas kv.km. Selfuri myinvarebi da kunZulebi, romlebic miekuTvnebian antarqtidis myinvarebs), mimdebare kunZulebs (maT Soris samxreT orkneis, samxreT sendviCis, samxreT Setlendis kunZulebi), agreTve atlantis, wynari da indoeTis okeaneebis nawili, romelsac xSirad uwodeben samxreTis an antarqtikul okeanes. antarqtikis teritoria ZiriTadad ganlagebulia samxreT ganedis 48-60 gradusebis arealSi.
arqtikaSi sakuTari seqtorebi gaaCnia, mis mosazRvre, xuT saxelmwifos: danias, norvegias, kanadas, aSS-s da ruseTs. TiToeuli am saxelmwifos arqtikul seqtors warmoadgens sivrce, romlis safuZvelsac warmoadgens am saxelmwifos sanapiro, xolo gverdiT xazs _meridianebi Crdilo polusiadn am saxelmwifoebis aRmosavleT da dasavleT sazRvrebamde. arqtikis seqtoris farglebSi sazRvao da sahaero naosnoba dasaSvebia mxolod mimdebare saxelmwifoebis nebarTviT da mxolod mSvidobiani da samecniero miznebiT.
kosmosuri sivrce aseve ar eqvemdebareba erovnul miTvisebas. kosmosuri sivrce, mTvarisa da sxva ciuri sxeulebis CaTvliT, Riaa kvlevisa da gamoyenebisaTvis, nebismieri saxelmwifosaTvis yovelgvari dikriminaciis gareSe Tanasworuflebianobis safuZvelze da saerTaSoriso samarTlis normebis Sesabamisad Tavisufali daSveba ciuri sxeulebis nebismier raionSi (1967 wlis 27 ianvaris xelSekruleba “saxelmwifoTa moRvaweobis principebi kosmosuri sivrcis kvlevisa da aTvisebis Sesaxeb” statia #1).
sazRvrebi warmoadgenen suverenitetebis moqmedebis sferoebis gamyof xazebs. politikuri sazRvari, erTdroulad, warmoadgens mocemuli saxelmwifos sagareo garss da mis mezoblebTan kontaqtis xazs. politikuri, ideologiuri, lingvisturi da religiuri gansxvavebebis miuxedavad saxelmwifo sazRvari warmoadgens universaluri xasiaTis erTaderT normas.
sazRvrebi xels uwyoben saxelmwifoebis mier Tavis Tavis, rogorc erTiani mTelis aRqmas, romelic gansxvavdeba sxva saxelmwifoebisagan da romelsac sakuTar teritoriaze gaaCnia ucilobeli suvereniteti.

cnebebi da terminebi:

sawyisi xazebi – sanapirosa da zRvis gamyofi wiri. sazRvari saxelmwifos Sida wylebsa da teritoriul zRvas Soris. sawyisi xazebidan iwyeba teritoriuli zRvis, sagangebo ekonomikuri zonis da sxva sazRvao zonebis azomva.
saxelmwifos Sida wylebi – saxelmwifos sazRvrebSi mTlianad moqceuli zRvebi, tbebi, mdinareebi da saerTaSoriso zRvebis is nawili, romelic am saxelmwifos sawyisi xazebis SigniT (xmeleTisaken) aris ganlagebuli. igi imyofeba saxelmwifos absoluturi iurisdiqciis qveS.
sazRvao mili _ gansxvavdeba inglisuri milisagan da udris 1853 metrs.
sivrce _ geopolitikis ZiriTadi cneba. warmoadgens ara raodenobriv, aramed xarisxobriv kategorias. sivrcis struqtura winaswar gansazRvravs istoriis (pirvel rigSi politikuri istoriis) struqturas. aseTia geopolitikis, rogorc mecnierebis ZiriTadi Tezisi.
sivrcobrivi azri _ ratcelis termini. xarisxobriv sivrceSi Cadebuli istoriuli winaswargansazRvrulobis sistema.
teritoriuli zRva – teritoriuli wylebis sanapiros mimdebare zoli zRvaSi. misi sigane ar aRemateba 12 sazRvao mils da aiTvleba sawyisi xazebidan. igi aris sanapiro saxelmwifos suverenuli teritoria. ucxo saxelmwifos gemebs aqvT masSi mSvidobiani gavlis ufleba sazRvao samarTlis normebis Sesabamisad.
teritoriuli wylebi (territorial waters) - 12 sazRvao milis siganis wylis sivrce, romelic gasdevs saxelmwifos sanapiro zols.
Selfi (ing., shelf ) – kontinentaluri Selfi, materikuli meCeCi – materikis wyalqveSa sanapiros gasworebuli ganfeniloba, romelic xmeleTs ekvris da masTan saerTo geologiuri agebulebiT xasiaTdeba. Selfebis saerTo moculoba Seadgens daaxloebiT 32 milion kv.km-s. yvelaze didi Selfi gaaCnia evraziis CrdiloeT sanapiros, sadac misi sigane aRweva 1,5 aTas kolometrs. aseve didi Selfi aqvs beringis zRvas, huZonis yures, samxreT-CineTis zRvas, avstraliis CrdiloeT sanapiros.
zRva _ msoflio okeanis nawili, gamoyofili xmeleTiT an SemaRlebuli wyalqveSa reliefiT. zRvebi okeaneebis mixedviT: wynari okeane _ bandis zRva, beringis zRva, aRmosavleT CineTis zRva, yviTeli zRva, marjnis zRva, mindanaos zRva, oxotis zRva, sulavesis zRva, sulus zRva, tasmanis zRva, fijis zRva, filipinis zRva, samxreT CineTis zRva, iavis zRva, iaponiis zRva. atlantikis okeane _ azovis zRva, baltiis zRva, irlandiis zRva, karibis zRva, sargasis zRva, CrdiloeTis zRva, xmelTaSua zRva, adriatikis zRva, slboranis zRva, balearis zRva, ioniis zRva, kviprosis zRva, levantis zRva, liguriis zRva, marmarilos zRva, tireniis zRva, egeosis zRva, kretis zRva, Savi zRva, Sotlandiis zRva. indoeTis okeane _ andamanis zRva, arabeTis zRva, arafuris zRva, wiTeli zRva, timoris zRva. CrdiloeTis yinulovani okeane _ barencis zRva, peCoris zRva, bafinis zRva, TeTri zRva, bofortis zRva, aRmosavleT-cimbiris zRva, grelandiis zRva, laptevebis zRva, norvegiis zRva, Cukotkis zRva. samxreTis okeane _ amundsenis zRva, rosis zRva, uedelis zRva, skotis zRva, lazarevis zRva, devisis zRva, belisngauzenis zRva.
Sida zRva _ es termini xSirad gamoiyeneba gaumdinare didi mlaSe tbebisa da xelovnuri wyalsacavebis aRsaniSnavad (aralis zRva, kaspiis zRva, mkvdari zRva, Tbilisis zRva).
gansakuTrebuli ekonomikuri zona _ zRvis sivrce, romelic SeiZleba moiTxovos saxelmwifom misi teritoriuli zRvis gareT da mis mimdebared, sawyisi xazebidan 200 sazRvao miliT daSorebul xazamde. am zonaSi sanapiro saxelmwifo adgens xelovnuri kunZulebisa da nagebobebis agebis, samecniero kvlevebisa da garemos dacvis zRvis yvela cocxali da aracocxali bunebrivi resursebis mopovebisa da gamoyenebis wesebs. 1971 wels keniam gaakeTa pirveli ganacxadi gansakuTrebul ekonomikur zonaze. dReisaTvis yvelaze didi zonebi aqvs aSS-s, safrangeTs, avstralias da ruseTs.
okeane – (“okiane”-finikiurad “unapiro”, Okeanos _ berZ., mdinare) globaluri erTmaneTTan dakavSirebuli mlaSe wyali, igive msoflio okeane ukavia dedamiwis zedapiris TiTqmis 3/4 (71%), iyofa kontinentebiTa da arqipelagebiT Semdeg nawilebad: wynari okeane, atlantikis okeane, indoeTis oakeane, CrdiloeT yinulovani okeane da samxreT okeane. okeanis mcire nawilebs uwodeben zRvebs, yureebs, sruteebs da sxva.
Tavisufali zRva (laT., Mare Liberum) _ doqtrina, romelsac safuZveli Cauyara holandielma iuristma hugo grociusma 1609 wels gamoqveynebul naSromSi “Mare Liberum”, sadac man bunebiTi samarTlis koncefciaze dayrdnobiT Camoayaliba Tavisufali naosnobis Semdegi principi: “rogorc haeria saerTo, radgan igi ar SeiZleba iyos vinmes mier miTvisebuli da radgan igi ar amoiwureba mouwesrigebeli sargeblobis Sedegad da Sesabamisad igi ekuTvnis mTel kacobriobas, aseve zRvaa saerTo yvelasaTvis”.
daxuruli zRva (laT., Mare clausum) _ doqtrina, romelsac safuZveli Cauyara ingliselms iuritma jon seldenma 1635 wels gamoqveynebul naSromSi “Mare clausum”, sadac igi cdilobda daemtkicebina, rom zRvas praqtikaSi axasiaTebs saxmeleTo teritoriisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli Tvisebebi. Sesabamisad zRvaze naosnobis eqsklziuri ufleba ekuTvnis im saxelmwifos, romelic Zalze dayrdnobiT realurad akontrolebs mas.
alfred Taier meheni (1840-1914) amerikeli admirali, samxedro Teoretikosi, zRvis klauzevicad wodebuli. niu-portis samxedro-sazRvao kolejis profesori da 1886 wlidan misi prezidenti. aSS-s prezidentebis mak-kinlis da Teodor ruzveltis mrCeveli. aRsaniSnavia erTi garemoeba: Teodor ruzvelti Tavis Tavs Tvlida mehenis mowafed da amiT xazs usvamda masTan solidarobas. meheni did mniSvnelobas aniWebda sivrcul faqtors.
fridrix ratceli (1844-1904) germaneli mecnieri, geografi, sociologi, paleontologi da zoologi. daamTavra karlsrues politeqnikuti universiteti da haidelbergis universiteti. evolucionizmisa da darvinizmis msoflmxedvelobisa da meTodologiis mimdevari. laipcigis universitetis profesori. germaneli nacionalisti, “pangermanistuli ligis wevri”. geopolitikis erTerTi fuZemdebelTagani, Tumca termini “geopolitika” mas ar gamouyenebia. Tavis naSromebSi igi iyenebda termin “politikur geografias”.
iuxan rudolf Celeni (1864_1922) iuristi da saxelmwifoTmcodne. istoriisa da politikuri mecnierebis profesori. aswavlida geterbogisa (1901_1916) da ufsalas (1916_1922) universitetebSi. igi swavlobda marTvis sistemebs raTa gamoevlina Zlieri saxelmwifos Seqmnis gzebi. cneba“geopolitikis” avtori.

gamoyenebuli literatura:
1. Василенко И.А. Геополитика. М.: Гардарики, 2003.
2. Дугин А. Основы геополитики. Геополитическое будущее России. М.: Арктогея, 1997.
3. Ушаков Н.А. Международное право: основные термины и понятия. М.: ИГП РАН, 1996.
4. Моро-Дефарж Ф. Введение в геополитику. М.: Конкорд. 1996.
5. Нартов Н.А. Геополитика. М.: 1999
6. Колосов В. А., Мироненко Н. С. Геополитика и политическая география: М.: Аспект Пресс, 2002
geopolitics.nm.ru/ persons.html
http://archipelag.ru/geopolitics
http://geopolitics.ru/common/library.htm
lib.socio.msu.ru/l/ library
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki
Summary
Otar Kochoradze
Geopolicy and international relations
The comparative analysis of political and legal aspects of a category “Space”

The geopolitics studies the relations between space and politics: what influence renders the spatial factor on politics and behaviour of the political figures? And how spatial factor by the political figures is used? How should they from passive contemplate character of geographical space proceed to geopolitical and even to geostrategic aspect of a role of space?
People should realise, that the space is fundamental concept managing the public relations. The state, develops successfully then, when its political figures and its population has “feeling of space”. Concept " Feeling of space " identically to concept " talent for management " on this the politics should develop at themselves feeling of space.
Резюме
Отар Кочорадзе
Геополитика и международные отношения. Сравнительный анализ политических и правовых аспектов категории “пространсва”

Геополитика изучает отношения между пространством и политикой: какое влияние оказывает пространственный фактор на политику и поведение политических деятелей? И как используется сам пространственный фактор политическими деятелями? Как должны они от пассивного созерцательного характера географического пространства перейти к геополитическому и даже геостратегическому аспекту роли пространства?
Люди должны осознать, что пространство является фундаментальным понятием, управляющим общественными отношениями. Государство, развивается успешно тогда, когда его политические деятели и его население обладают чувством пространства. Понятие «Чувство пространства» идентично понятию «талант к управлению»б именно по этому политики должны выработать у себя чувство пространства.

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